Back in the Golden Age of Islam, Muslim astronomers began studying the skies to improve their religious practice: when to pray, how to face Mecca. 

Women around the world are striving for full gender equality in how they speak, work, and pray. But feminism takes on new meaning when viewed through the lens of Islam.

Subway bombings in Madrid and London, riots in France, and protests over Danish cartoons defaming the Prophet Mohammed have prompted concern about how Muslim immigrants are adjusting to Europe’s liberal and secular society. Across the Atlantic, the situation seems more sanguine. A recent study released by the Pew Research Center found that Muslims in America are largely middle class and have integrated well. But the tensions in Europe have sparked fears that Islamic extremism could spread to the U.S.